Solving Systems of Linear Equations


Systems of linear equations can be solved in four unique ways. You can use Substitution, which is an algebraic form of solving the systems. You can also use linear combinations, which is a method that involves adding multiples of the given equations. Another method that can be used to solve systems of linear equations is graphing, a solution which shows all solutions of a system. The last method that you can use to solve systems of equations is matrices. To solve systems of equations using this method, you insert the coefficients respectively into a matrix. All these systems have their advantages and disadvantages.

Substitution is a common method of solving systems of linear equations. This method works when one of the equations given has a lone variable on one side of the equation. That equation must be substituted into the other equation, combining to make one equation. Here is an example:

1. 4x + 3y = 12

2. Y = 2x + 5

The second equation must now be substituted for y in equation 1, because y is the separate variable.

Now you are left with: 4x + 3 (2x + 5) = 12

Now solve the equation: 4x + 6x +15 = 12

Subtract 15 from 12 to get it on the right side. 10x = -3

Now simply solve for x.

X = -3/10

Now do the same thing to find y.

Substitution is most useful when one of the two given equations already has an isolated variable, like equation 2. Substitution will give you an exact answer, unlike graphing. It is a method easily carried out, but limited to systems of linear equations that contain an equation with an isolated variable so if neither of the equations that you are provided with contain an isolated variable, you must change them into y = or x = etc . form.

Linear combination is a fairly easy way to solve systems of linear equations. It involves eliminating a variable in order to make the system more easily solved. Linear combination would not be useful if an equation was given that already contained an isolated variable, it could be done, but substitution would be more sensible to use. Here is an example:

First, you must obtain coefficients for a variable that differ only in sign, so that they may be cancelled out to simplify the equations. One way to do this is multiplying an equation or both equations by the right number.

1. 4x + 4y = 6 You will multiply this equation by 3

2. -2x – 3y = -1 You will multiply this equation by 4


1. 12x + 12y = 18

2. -8x – 12y = -4

Now you can add both equations together, and the y variable will be eliminated because its coefficients differ only in sign. Then solve for the last remaining variable.
1. 4x = 14

2. X = 3.5

Linear combination is useful because it allows for canceling or eliminating one of the variables in the equations for a simpler solution. This is done simply by multiplying one or both of the equations by numbers, in hopes to make the coefficients the same number with an opposite sign. Then they cancel each other out, and can be added together and solved.

Another process to solve system of equations is graphing. Graphing is great because it gives a visual diagram of the system. However it is not entirely accurate when done by hand, and can be hard to read. To solve using graphing, two aspects are required: the slope, and the y intercept. To solve a linear system using graphing, you plot the y intercept of each equation you are provided with, on a coordinate graph. Then use the slope (rise over run) to find the other point. Then draw a line between the two points and extend it outward until you locate the point of intersection. Then you can find the ordered pair of that point. Graphing is a good method because it visually displays the equations, however it is much more inaccurate then other methods.

The final method for solving is Matrices. Matrices are a much easier way to solve systems that contain three or more variables. Usually, Linear Combination could be used, but since it is a monotonous process, matrices may be the best method. Since matrices are unable to be divided, a matrix must be cancelled out by multiplication of its inverse. The inverse (when multiplied) will equal the identity matrix, which is similar to multiplying by "1". The coefficients in a system must be inserted into a matrix in order. Here is an example.

-2x – 3y = -26

3x + 4y = 36

Matrix A ([A]) will be:

[-2 -3]

[3 4]

Matrix B ([B]) will be:



The equation should look like this:

[-2 -3] * [X] = [-26]

[3 4] [y] [36]

Then multiply [A] -1 * [B]

[-2 -3] 1. * [-26]

[3 4] [36]

Remember, Matrix multiplication is not commutative, so [B] * [A] -1 will give you a different answer than [A] -1 * [B]. One disadvantage of using matrices to solve systems of linear equations, is the time consuming process. However it is a good method for complex problems with many variables.

Systems of Linear Equations can be solved in numerous ways. Substitution is a nice concise algebraic method to solve systems that have an equation with an isolated variable, such as x = 7y – 9. Substitution is very accurate, unlike graphing; however it is limited to equations that contain one lone variable, so if your equations do not contain one, you must make them into y = or x = etc. form to isolate a variable. Linear Combination is another method that is possible to use to solve systems. Linear combination is a good method because it enables canceling or eliminating of one of the variables in the equations for a simpler solution. Graphing is a desirable method to use for solving systems because it visually displays the solution. The disadvantage of graphing is the inaccuracy of it compared to other options of methods. Using Matrices is a long tedious process but very accurate and useful on large systems. Systems of Linear equations have many options with which to be solved.


Source by Paul Kennard

Yetunde Odugbesan Omede, An Excellent Leader of Positive Change and Great Influence!


One of the great leaders who have built her great influence to excellently pave an empowering future that the next generation is Yetunde Odugbesan. Yetunde Adeola Odugbesan is one that takes the lead! She has no doubt that it is her duty to smile upon others, inform and bring them to their feet to be supremely excellent of their kind.

She is a passionate and consistent Nigerian-American leader who is truly a person of influence. Her influence is inspiring change all over the continent. Born and raised in New Jersey, United States of America; Yetunde who dreamt of becoming a President or an Ambassador when she was in elementary school is leading the way in every relevant occasion. She has maximized the favourable occasion to increase her favourable influence.

From being a high-flying academic achiever in the elementary school to the captain of her high school's basket ball teams and from being the captain of the Varsity cheer-leading team to the President of the student government, Yetunde has exerted her influence without exception.

Yetunde Odugbesan is an embodiment of influence and change! She is one of those who run the wheel of positive leadership change especially for Africa and its female folks. She is a rarity of beauty who smiles upon others to take initiatives. An audacity of integrity whose passion reflects her desire to see African women get empowered and take their place. A personality of exceptionality who does achievements that are out of this world.

Yetunde is a confident woman who has made a difference for the time to come through becoming an outstanding leader in this day and age. Within and outside the school, Yetunde has actively given her genius the recognition it deserves. She was a first class student ambassador and an unfailing honor roll student. Her confidence has always given her a place in different leadership capacities; increasing her favourable influence at every favorable occasion.

Yetunde Odugbesan has a Bachelor degree in Journalism and Media studies with a double honor in organizational leadership and Africana studies from Rutgers University. Yetunde received her Master's degree in Global affairs with a concentration in international law from the same institution of higher learning.

She is a graduate of the United Nation Worldview Institute, an executive training programme for global business professionals in the field of Global Business and International Affairs. She is currently working on her PhD dissertation in Global Political Economy at Rutgers University, the division of Global Affairs. She is focusing on political corruption and its effect on governmental performance and social services being delivered by local and state government.

Yetunde Odugbesan believes that corruption affects the lives of many worldwide. She has no doubt that it affects the manner in which decisions are made in all levels of government, as it manipulates political institutions of government. And most importantly it infringes on the human rights of people. She also believes that, the political and economic decay caused by corruption results in problems which causes social, economic and political unrest. And this reduces the structures and strategies for fighting hand-to-mouth existence, to nothing. Her work when completed will address corruption on basic citizen needs and human rights.

Yetunde Odugbesan has created real change and made her mark in leadership Yetunde was the President of Rutgers University Student Association of Global Affairs and Vice-President of Rutgers Graduate Student Government Association. She was the President and founding member of Sigma Lota Rho National Honor Society for International Relations Rutgers University Chapter.

She was the founder of the poetry club and the Assistant Editor for Public Performance and Management Review. Yetunde Odugbesan is an excellent leader of positive change whose influence is impacting lives.

Yetunde sits on various boards that temper the wind to the shorn lamb when it comes to the social and economic issues in various Africa countries. She sits on the Board of Trustee for Red Thread Foundation for Women, Board Member of New York Needs You. She is a New Leaders Council Fellow; a Board Member of Countless Philanthropic foundations and humanitarian organizations. She is a member of Global Women Leadership Collaborative.

Yetunde is a member of the 101% society, Young Professionals in Foreign Policy, United Nations Association of New York, Young Professionals for international cooperation, and mentor coach for various organization.

She is involved in the Clinton Global Initiative Annual and University meeting. Yetunde is a search committee member for Rutgers University Presidential Search. She is an extraordinary philanthropic and exceptional humanitarian. Yetunde is the Global Ambassador for Black Girls Unite Africa Inc.

Yetunde Odugbesan is an Adjust Faculty Member of Political Science of Rutgers University where she teaches comparative politics. This intelligent and beautiful leader is the founder and Executive Director of Young Women's Guide. This organization provides young women with the tips, tools and resources to live a meaningful, purposeful and impactful life. The goal of the organization is to spread passion, raise awareness and offer solutions to and for young women. It provides mentorship opportunities, women empowerment conferences and favourable occasions to increase favourable influence through giving back to the society.

The organization gets involved with various philanthropic and humanitarian initiatives geared toward women and girls development. It also helps these women and girls pursue their guest for social and positive change. There are dispositions that inspire actions which get the generation better.

Yetunde has sweet but bold disposition that will empower you put your best foot forward. Her mission to pay it forward is paving an empowering future for the next generation. She is providing personal and professional advice through her online forum, putting your best self forward.

She believes that some people paid the price for us to be successful in this day and age. It is therefore our responsibility to ensure that another child is given a chance to make a success. She holds the belief that the power of paying it forward will expose women to the right, favourable occasions and having the right support to live out their dreams. Thereby contributing positively to the development of Africa especially Nigeria and the progression of the global community.

Yetunde Odugbesan is a woman of influence; she is CEO and Founder of Yetunde Global Consulting. Yetunde Global Consulting is a management consulting firm that specializes in leadership development and training. It also focuses on developing organizational management and global business strategy for companies, firms, organizations and professionals. Her approach to leadership development inspires action and achieves results by developing leadership competencies, effective communication strategies and productivity. She is raising the bar of excellence and influence for executives, young professionals and entrepreneurs.

This strong and resilient woman loves what she does; her influence. Her passion for women and girl development, youth empowerment is mind-blowing. The way she promotes human and social welfare, and social entrepreneurship distinguishes her as one of the influential leaders who rule the world. She has achieved excellent goals and striking results that have made her a highly sought after leadership consultant. She has influenced lives, organizations and business with her self-assertive vision of positive change and real leadership.

Yetunde is a professor, entrepreneur, media personality humanitarian, philanthropist, author, international speaker and leadership consultant whose principles can give your life a new meaning. Yetunde Odugbesan has taken people, their business and organizations to the next level of leadership. She is a woman of honor whom everyone have come tot like and trust.

Yetunde has cemented her influence and increased her respect level through sponsoring women and inspiring them to become all-round success. She has turned her strength and skills into a special service that ensures that many have competitive advantage. Yetunde knows that she is a leader of influence and has therefore made herself very influential. She has created positive change and she does that differently. Her uniqueness and passion has attracted the reward of positive leadership.

She has been invited to the World Bank to speak at conferences and summits. Including the United Nations World Conference on the status of women, advocating for programs that will empower girls in Africa to realize who they really are. In my opinion, there is no doubt that Yetunde Adeola Odugbesan-Omede will be the right candidate to become the first female president of the biggest black nation in the world.

She has been hosted by various leaders in the Nigerian government from the First lady of Lagos State Hon. Mrs. Fashola to the Honourable Minister of Women Affairs – Iyom Josephine. She was also hosted by Nigeria's 1st lady, Dame Patience Jonathan in Abuja, and other leaders who believe in her message of positive change, especially for the Youths and Women.

Yetunde believes in Nigerian Youths and sees them as the beacons of hope and change. This motivated her to take a three weeks trip to Nigeria in August, 2012. While in Africa's most powerful nation, she took her time to impact lives of about five hundred students at the University of Ibadan. She empowered them on the importance of social value. She united and inspired them to make their lives count. She is a positive personality admired by the Youths globally.

Yetunde Odugbesan sees Africa as the next economic hub with glorious outlooks that inspire hope for more investments and future growth. She believes that if an African child is given the right education, the future leader will compete globally and be outstanding. In order to set the stage for the African child, to become more competitively advantage and an articulate leader; she spoke to the soul of the African child.

Yetunde traveled to South African! During her trip, she taught 7th graders life skills and emotional development at Amstelhof Primary School in Cape Town, South Africa. She is really an Ambassador; she is flying around the world changing lives even in the United States of America. She has influenced the world, especially Africa through pursuing her goals in all seriousness and bringing forth the best of potentials.

Yetunde Odugbesan is a creative force who is rewriting history with her influence. Yetunde is helping people develop themselves in order to reach their potential. She has invested so much in leadership development. She has made an incredible impact that has attracted so many people of prominence to her. Including the former President of the United States of America, President Bill Clinton, whom she has met with personally.

Like President Bill Clinton, she has given back so much to the world. Like Oprah Winfrey, her branding and philanthropy is enough to make you make statements without saying a word. Like President Barrack Obama, she says; yes we can and a country is going to develop base on how it treats its women. Like Michelle Obama, her sense of style, dedication and decorum is out of this world. Like Benazir Bhutto, she is the first and supremely excellent of her kind. Like Nelson Mandela, her focus and determination to leave her footprint on the soil of our time is life-changing.

She is indeed leaving a lasting impression and this lifestyle is called influence! Yetunde is a wise and strong-willed leader of change. Yetunde is an Ambassador of real leadership and a leader of positive change. Her influence speaks of positive change always and all the way.

Yetunde Odugbesan made the choice to be very influential at a young age. She has shattered the glass ceiling of the political, economic, business, academic and professional world. Her achievements are bigger than life. She is the recipient of numerous academic, leadership and public service awards. She has been listed as one of the 30 most intriguing Africans in New York by Applause Africa Magazine. She has been chosen as 1st out of the 20 most outstanding Nigerians by Eminent Leaders Magazine. And she was recently honored the 2013 Young Humanitarian Award by the Nigerian Healthcare Foundation in New Jersey.

Yetunde has maximized grace and time to become very influential. She is a true leader whose substance is excellence in every ambiance. She has co-authored a published book titled, "A call to serve: quotes on public service." A masterpiece that is fostering a spirit of service and civic engagement and encouraging more people to public service. Yetunde has proved that more women can shattered the glass ceiling and develop habit of excellence to become powerful and influential.

She is happily married to her best friend, Osahon Omede, COO and Managing Director of Sammed Protective Services. Their wedding which planned to perfection took place in New Jersey, United States of America. What are you thinking about? I encourage and urge you to effect positive change now and enhance national transformation.


Source by Anyaele Sam Chiyson

Where IS The World's Largest Neon Sign?


Where is this giant sign? It is right where it should be. There is only one logical place in this country where it could be. No, it is not in New York City. A neon sign this size needs plenty of room. It also has to advertise someplace that is popular enough so that this gigantic sign can pay for itself. That means a location that draws millions of visitors annually. New York City does get them.

But where could they put it? Times Square does not have enough space. Also, the corporation who owns this neon sign does have property in The Big Apple but no place not enough room for this sign which is not a sign you can hang on or attach to a building. The only place that meets all of the requirements, if you have not guessed it by now, is "The Strip" in Las Vegas. This location is ideal because the money generated here far surpasses whatever income New York could produce and once you see the price you will know why Las Vegas got the nod. The most obvious reason, the size of this neon sign, points to Las Vegas.

This neon sign was the idea of ​​the Hilton Hotel Corporation. The company that was to build the original sign had planned to build a 364 foot tall sign on the site when they started in 1994. However, this neon sign was practically destroyed during construction by a windstorm in July of that year. However, as luck would have it, the undamaged foundation and steel structure was able to be used when the foundation for the new sign was poured in 1996. It became the world's largest and tallest free-standing advertising sign. Las Vegas known as The City of Lights received the brightest neon sign anywhere.

Just what makes this neon sign the brightest star in town? It is powered by flashing ballasts and neon transformers. Lights are provided by more than 1,500 flashing sign ballasts. The sign's total surface area is over 70,000 square feet. This neon is able to produce as many as 64 changing color shades. The hotel's name, Hilton, is done in rebox style letters 164 feet wide and 29 feet high and uses 9,310 feet of lighting. The sign is two-sided and displays ridges which are four lamps deep all the way up and down the sign.

The sign features a "Star Trek: The Experience" logo and a programmable reader board. This double-sided reader board is 40 feet high and 80 feet wide and is filled with 32,000 colored lamps per side. The Star-Trek part of the sign took 6,944 linear feet of neon to illuminate.The sign's flashing ballasts are used to turn the colors on and off, move the light across the screen and control the sign's flashing activities in as efficient and effective manner. The flashing sign ballasts are 120-volt, high output, which allows for dependable stopping at low temperatures. They support up to three lamps and have pre-heated cathodes to improve lamp performance. The ballasts are good for about 20,000 hours. The sign has proven to be very popular with visitors. There's another title that could undoubtedly apply to this sign for at a price tag of approximately $ 9 million it could easily be the world's most expensive neon sign.

It is interesting to note that Saginaw, Michigan claims to have the largest neon sign in the state. It is 35 'tall and 50' long and is said to be the largest figural sign in the entire United States. A figural sign is based on human or animal figures.

Neon signs are things we see every day. From our largest cities to our smallest towns they exhibit their colorful brilliance day and night through all kinds of weather. Although their main function is to advertise they add warm lights to brighten many dark areas. They add color to drab buildings.

The US has its Times Square and Las Vegas, both being impressive neon sign showcases. London has its Piccadilly Circus, a well-known sign display. Some of the other places with bright sign centerpieces are Tokyo's Ginza and Shibuya, Osaka's Do ton bun, Shanghai's Nanjinj Road (the world's largest shopping street), and Bankok's Soi Cowboy district which was named after an American who opened a go-go bar there in the 1970's. This one made the list because of its so-called unpleasant strangeness which featured pink elephants marching up and down its pink neon streets.

Neon signs are found worldwide. Although they proclaim their messages in hundreds of languages ​​their purposes and their benefits are the same as they are here.


Source by Joseph Tedesco

What Are the Uses of Multimedia in Today's Modern World?


Multimedia or animation is industry is growing and progressing to leaps and bounds. It is a perfect combination of audio, still images, animation, video, text and interactivity content forms. All these can be recorded and played together and give a perfect combination of multimedia content. It enables a user to perfectly and artistically create videos or interactive content. A user can create such content with the help of processing devices like electronic or computerized devices. There are a variety of uses of such artistic and interactive effects in an electronic form.

In the modern world, technology has developed and advanced to a great extent. As a result of which the expectations of the corporate world is increasing in terms of ideas and concepts. In other words, a businessperson has started relying on the Power Point presentation for making business presentations or proposals. One can make use of the presentation in the corporate world and here animation is necessary. In educational fields, this kind of interactive media is used. Students are trained to prepare presentations and even teachers impart lessons to the students for this purpose. You may require this media often in case of virtual reality.

Creative industries such as advertisement, public relations, journalism and many more require this form of rich media. Film and entertainment firms make its extensive use for the purpose of entertaining their target audiences. Animated films are becoming more popular than ever before. Online games are also becoming popular. Engineering industries require this form of media in computer simulations. Mathematical and scientific researches require simulation and modeling. For instance, scientist may prepare a molecular model and manipulate it accordingly. Forensic and investigation bureau often require this form of content in order to investigate and understand the crime.

Hence, there are a lot of professional fields which require interactive content or rich media and as result of which there is a lot of potential in multimedia career which is possible with the help of best multimedia coaching. Many aspirants have started looking for such kind of profession.


Source by Lisa R Thomson

A Few Fun Facts About Postcards and How Can They Be Useful to Your Business


Postcard sending may be one of the best ways to spend your spare change or to build up a hobby.

Although most of the postcards we get today are related to business or are commercial in nature, it's still nice to have postcards sent to you from all over the world. Postcards also serve as time monuments and postcards can really serve as 'time tellers', especially if you find some rare ones out there.

Postcards are around for almost a century and a half – the postcard was patented in 1861 by John P.

Since then the sending of postcards quickly rose to popularity and there were sent more and more of them each year. There were 677,777,798 American postcards sent in 1908, which means that every American sent roughly 7.64 postcards a year. Did you know that there is a science dedicated to collecting postcards? You do now. The study of postcards is called deltiology.

There are some postcards that are considered special, funny or even naughty in various ways. Example For, Soviet-style old Appearances postcards are On one 's of the most Ironic ones. Their style is remarkably great, while their quality was one of the best in the world. Soviet postcards are not too hard to acquire, though are considered to be rare by some deltiologists. Also, there have been rumors a spectacular That the Lolcats were invented by vBulletin® postcard senders. Now that's a cute postcard.

Postcards have had a great effect on the community, and it is common that most of the postcards you receive, are of commercial nature.

Postcard potential in advertising is really valuable, especially if you take your time to make an appealing one.

The devastating success of postcards has influenced and inspired a lot of new advertising types. One of the most successful followers of postcards which witness a tremendous amount of success, are flyers.


Source by Lar V

Growth of Online Degree Programs in the Philippines


Online degree programs were first offered in the Philippines in the early 90's during which there was a recorded continuous growth in the number of state and private institutions in the country. Also during this period was when the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), one of the three government organizations handling the education system in the country, encouraged many educational institutions to offer distance learning programs. This move was triggered by the increasing population and rise of tertiary enrolments over the past years.

1990's – Rise of Open Universities

One of the well-recognized Higher Education Institution (HEI) offering online degree programs in the country is the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU), which was established in 1995. OPOU is the pioneer of open learning and distance education in the Philippines . Another prominent open university in the country is the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Open University (PUPOU). PUPOU began offering online degree courses in 1990. The Asian Institute for Distance Education (AIDE) is one of the only four government-recognized distance learning providers in the country offering full academic degrees. Other pioneers of online degree programs are the University of Santo Tomas (UST), Ateneo de Manila University (ADMU) through the e-Learning Access Program, and Dela Salle University (DLSU). The online programs offered by these online universities include undergraduate programs, graduate certificate programs, post-baccalaureate programs, masters program, and doctoral programs.

2000's – Technological Advancements in HEIs

The eLearning market starts to emerge in the Philippines in the early 2000's. However, the online courses offered by that time are limited only to certificate and vocational training. The government agency that helps facilitate these online programs is the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). Today, TESDA is offering various online courses in the fields of IT, Tourism, Electronics, Automotive, HVAC, and Agriculture under the so-called Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Although these programs only provide Diploma and Certificate courses, TESDA has ladderization programs from these courses to the degree courses.

At the turn of the millennium, internet technology starts to gain momentum in the education system of the Philippines. This technological milestone gives way to the emergence of more public and private HEIs offering online courses. According to a study, the number of internet users increased by about 291% during the period of 2000-2006, which is equivalent to 7.82 million people. According to Philippines ICT Statistics Portal, the mobile phone subscription was more than doubled from 2006 to 2011 and the fixed broadband subscription was more than quadrupled within the same time frame. According to, various public and private websites have also surfaced to provide online programs and services to students in the higher education. Among of these institutions are the Advanced Science and Technology Institute, Kodiko Online,, Education for Life Foundation,, FAPENET, Gurong Pahinugod, and

2010's – High Economic Growth Impacts Higher Education Programs

According to Business World Online, there are nearly 2,300 HEIs in the Philippines and 1,259 of them were offering business degrees in 2012. According to CHED, tertiary enrolment reached 3.3 million in the same year. Based on, there are lots of postgraduate courses in the Philippines that can be taken online from various public and private HEIs today. These are online courses in education, management and public administration, agriculture, media and communication, health and allied sciences, computer studies, business, and architecture and engineering.

The Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program (ETEEAP) can be considered as one of the major breakthroughs in improving the offerings of online degree programs in the Philippines. Under this program, students aiming for bachelor's degree can complete their studies in about a year or so and they also have the option to take the program online from the accredited online colleges and universities.

Fueled by the growing economy, more and more HEIs are offering online degree courses to both Filipino and international students across the country today. And with education programs offered by TESDA and CHED, it is expected that online degree programs in the country will continue to experience more growth in the coming years.


Source by Paul B Hata

Setting The Tone For A Positive Learning Environment


Every teacher has a responsibility to provide a healthy learning environment for his or her students. Over the years, volumes of research have been conducted to help teachers determine what works best for the students. There is a wealth of methods and techniques that, through research, have been proven to improve the quality of the learning environment. Many different aspects of the learning environment should be considered.

A positive learning environment is one in which school staff, students, and parents build safe and peaceful environments where people feel accepted and respected and where learning is the main focus (Stratman, nd). Therefore, a positive school climate exists when all students feel comfortable, wanted, valued, accepted, and secure in an environment where they can interact with caring people they trust. A positive school climate affects everyone associated with the school, being the students, staff, parents, and the community. It is the belief system or culture that underlies the day-to-day operation of a school. "Improved school climate is a goal to pursue. Educators need to constantly work toward improving their school climate, culture, and conditions so that student learning is improved" (Noonan, 2004 p.64). How Teachers Can Set the Tone for a Positive Learning Environment

There are many things a teacher can do to make his or her classroom a safe and positive place for students to learn. First and foremost, a teacher needs to be enthusiastic about her or himself. They must come in with an energetic attitude. They must be positive because it radiates. How the teacher feels and appears it will affect the classroom. The teacher is the facilitator, the teacher sets an example, and the teacher is the role model. Attitude goes a long way.

When teachers come to work stressed-out, it can be damaging to the students. A study conducted by Yoon (2002) investigated whether or not teacher stress, negative affect, and self-efficacy would predict the quality of student-teacher relationships. Findings suggested, "negative teacher-student relationships were predicted by teacher stress. Significant correlations were found among negative affect, teacher stress and negative relationships" (p.486).
The teacher should also share with the students the importance of an education and the importance of being independent. So if they see a teacher enthused about learning and ideas are shared, then the students will feel the same as well. Teachers can also help create a positive environment by simply caring for the students and showing each of them that they are special. Furthermore, they should be taught to respect and care for each other.

Teachers should regularly conduct research to stay up-to-date on the best practices and methods to use in creating a positive learning environment. Freda Glatt, a retired teacher who firmly believes in the benefits of a positive learning environment has shared some tips on creating a positive learning environment through the Sandral Sensations website (2003):
Make sure each child knows that he is important to you as an individual. Give eye contact and a pleasant greeting to every child each morning. Look and sound enthusiastic when a child makes progress on a skill he is finding difficult. Anytime is a good time for a smile.

Teach students to help rather than to laugh. It takes a lot of bravery to participate when you are unsure of yourself. Bring that to your class' attention by doing some role-playing. Ask how they felt when their classmates laughed at them. Remind your pupils that everyone is human and makes mistakes … but that it is okay and expected. You do not want them to fear being ridiculed if they ask a question or answer incorrectly.

Take note of your students' strengths and let them help you throughout the year. Make a positive statement before giving a correction. Your reaction when a child gets an answer wrong is also important. "A positive statement, followed by a negative one, helps to soften the blow and you remind students that you care" (Burnett, 1999, p.3).

George Stratman of the San Diego County Office of Education (nd) has created a useful list of "10 Subtle Ways to Create a Positive Learning Environment", which can be a useful guide of elementary school teachers:

1. Begin your week by "nesting." Students need time upon arrival to become familiar with and comfortable in their new surroundings. Take time during your first class to discuss the week and what they will be doing and to answer questions they may have.

2. Use the students' names. They will feel that you know them and care about them.

3. Catch them being good. Praise the group and individuals when they do well. (Be careful not to over praise an individual. Telling the other students that they should behave "just like Suzy" can be counterproductive – and not necessarily appreciated by Suzy.)

4. Dignify wrong answers. If a child gives a wrong answer, give him or her credit for trying, and if possible, relate their answer to the subject matter. For example, if you are asking the students for an example of a decomposer and a student answers "manzanita," you could respond by saying, "the manzanita is a vital part of this ecosystem, so you're on the right track. However , I'm looking for a living organism that would help break down the manzanita into soil after it dies. "

5. Give students a second chance to answer correctly. You could follow-up on the situation above by giving all the students an opportunity to share with their neighbors some examples of decomposers. Once it is clear that everyone has an answer, tell the student (above) that you will give him / her another opportunity and then, after you've taken an answer or two from other students, call on that student again.

6. Do not "zap" students. If a student is misbehaving, try and redirect the behavior in subtle ways such as moving closer to that individual, utilizing his or her name in a sentence during instruction (such as "let's say we were walking on the trail and Johnny came across a deer track … "), or a gentle hand on the shoulder. If you must address the child directly and aggressively, pull him / her away from the group. If you overtly discipline a child in front of the group, others may be afraid to participate for fear of the same treatment.

7. Phrase your questions in a manner that is non-threatening. It is better to ask, "who would like to share with the group …" than to ask "who knows the answer to …" as the latter implies that if you do not raise your hand, you do not know.

8. Allow for thinking time. After you ask a question or give instructions give the students time to process. If you give instructions and ask for questions but do not provide wait time, children who process slower than others may not understand and will feel lost once the activity starts. Students who are not given adequate time to consider when answering a question will similarly feel left out.

9. Do not repeat answers. When a student makes a comment, let his / her comment stand on its own. If you repeat the answer, the students will be trained to listen only to the teacher and you will steal some of the "thunder" away from the student. If you think the others did not hear, have the student repeat the answer. (Note: this technique may not work when addressing 200 people, but is very effective with a smaller group.)

10. Give the students choices. Make sure the choices you give are acceptable to you. For instance, you can say "today we are going to climb 'Daredevil Hill,' would you like to do that before or after lunch?" Giving some choice in activities, or at least the order, gives the students some control and buy-in for their week.

How Parents Can Set the Tone for a Positive Learning Environment:

Parents can also play a part in creating a positive learning environment (Muijs, 2004). Teachers should expect parents to work with their child and school personnel to support the learning of their child and the learning environment of the school. The Canadian Education Act 1997) asserts certain expectations for parents. These are to: "meet the basic needs of their child; ensure their child attends school; encourage their child to complete assigned homework; attend to their child's conduct while the child is at school and on the way to and from school; communicate reasonably with school personnel. " (Canadian Education Act, 1997, p.1).

Just as the teacher's attitude plays a role in establishing the positive environment, the parents' attitudes also take effect (Ajzen, 1988, p.10). Parents can help by sending the child off to school on a positive note. If a parent smiles as he or she wishes the child a nice day and says "I love you", the child is already approaching the day with a positive outlook and will be more receptive to learning (Ajzen, 1988, p.10).

In conclusion, with the support and dedication of the teachers, parents, and administration, any learning environment can and should be transformed into a positive learning environment. Clearly, everyone has a different role to play and a responsibility to fulfill in order to maintain the positive environment. There are many benefits to maintaining a positive learning environment. "Positive learning environments in schools will maximize the learning of every student; Help children and youth become full participating citizens of society; Help to build a sense of community; Lead to cost savings and economic benefits as prevention is less expensive than incarceration" (Positive Learning Environments in Schools, 2005).


Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, & behavior. Chicago: The Dorsey Press.
Burnett, P. (1999). The impact of teachers 'praise on students' self-talk and self-concepts. New South Wales, Aus: Teaching and Teacher Education. Retrieved September 15, 2005, from ERIC database.

Canadian Education Act. (1997) Retrieved Sep. 14, 2005, from
Http:// .
DiGiulio, R. (2001). Educate, medicate, or litigate? what teachers, parents, and administrators must do about student behavior .. California, US: Educational Management. Retrieved September 15, 2005, from ERIC database.

Doctor, S. (1997). Creating a positive school climate. Towards Inclusion: Tapping Hidden Strengths, 3. Retrieved Sep 14, 2005, from
Http:// .

Glatt, FJ (2003). Retrieved Sep. 14, 2005, from Reading , Berkshire is FUNdamental Web site: Http:// .

Johnson, C., Templeton, R., & Guofang, W. (2000). Pathways to peace: promoting non-violent learning environments .. Chicago: Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Retrieved September 16, 2005, from ERIC database.

Muijs, D., Harris A., Chapman C., and Stoll, L. (2004). Improving schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas – a review of research evidence. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 15 (2), 149-175.


Source by Rebecca Schauffele

The History of the Quaker Lace Company


If you enjoy a beautiful Thanksgiving table, look forward to a white wedding, baptismal, or simply appreciate the beauty of lace curtains and linens, you might owe more than you think to the Quaker Lace Company.

The Quaker Lace Company of Philadelphia was founded in 1889 and started out as the Bromley Manufacturing Company, founded by the three sons of John Bromley. Mr. Bromley was an English carpet weaver who immigrated to Philadelphia in the 1840s and later became the patriarch of one of the city's largest textile enterprises. To large-produce lace for America, the Bromleys dipped into the profits they had made on their carpet business in England. This allowed them import not only expensive lace looms, but also the skilled weavers to produce them from Nottingham, England. In 1894, they renamed the business The Lehigh Manufacturing Company, and moved into an impressive manufacturing complex at the corner of 4th Street and Lehigh Avenue in Philadelphia's Kensington neighborhood. Later on, they opened another factory at 22nd and Lehigh, said to be the largest in the world.

Finally incorporated as the Quaker Lace Company in 1911, the firm quickly gained national attention as the nation's lace industry leader. QL's ability to successfully market machine-made lace as a stylish lifestyle for middle-class homes and women's fashions, made it a household name. By the early 1900's, Quaker Lace came close to surpassing the regal place of Nottingham, the place from which they obtained their looms, weavers, and designers. One of their more popular brochures proclaimed: "America has taste and individuality that should find expression in an American lace industry. Why not try to develop here a more perfect lace than that produced in Nottingham and Calais, the lace markets of the world?"

The success of QL was due in large to their ability to adopt to meet their middle-class customers' desires for lace that was both luxurious and durable. QL was a success, as the mechanization of lace-making offered average Americans the unique opportunity to wear and decorate their homes with what was previously a luxury item. Another very successful brochure invited the used of lace in fashion, "… no part of a woman's wardrobe which may not be beautified by the use of Quaker Laces," citing the "originality, authoritativeness and timeliness" of their designs.

One of their most admired designers lured away from the English and European industries, was designer Frederick Vessey. Recognizing the public's desire for beauty and durability, the company released one of their most successful brochures yet, one that emphasized the technical features of Quaker Lace nets that allowed their curtains to resist pulls, stretching, and distortion after washing without losing that essential quality of transparency.

During the second world war, the public's purchasing power and interest diminished. This was one of many swings in the textile industry. As the market for lace curtains continued to decline, the firm turned to producing practical goods like mosquito or camouflage netting for the military. In 1932, it began its first production of lace tablecloths, a favorite post-war item that would forever be associated with Quaker Lace.

Quaker Lace was not protected from the shifts in the textile industry, and in the late 1980s the Nottingham looms at the 4th and Lehigh factory became silent, as the manufacturing moved to plants in Lionville, Pa (Chester County), and Winthrop, Maine.

The Philadelphia Mill continued to operate by bleaching, dying, cutting, and packaging the famous Quaker Lace tablecloths and curtains. The Mill remained open largely due to their innovative chemical process that allowed their tablecloths and curtains to withstand dozens of launderings without losing their shape.

It was the closure of a substantial amount of the department stores that retailed the Quaker Lace products that finally pushed the company into bankruptcy in 1992.

The Quaker Lace rights, name and patterns were purchased by Lorraine Linens, which marketed their unique tablecloths and curtains until its own bankruptcy in 2007. The original manufacturing plant of Lehigh Avenue in Philadelphia, was abandoned after the bankruptcy and eventually was destroyed by a devastating fire on September 19, 1994.

In 2003, the Julia de Burgos Middle School was built on the site.


Source by Patricia LaRaia

Book Summary and Reflection – Constructing Local Theologies by Robert J. Schreiter


The book is divided into seven chapters which deal with the definition of local theology, mapping a local theology, study of culture, theology and its context (church tradition as local theologies), tradition and Christian identity, popular religion and official religion, and syncretism and dual religious systems.

In the first chapter, the writer observes the important shift in perspective in theology in recent years. This shift was a concentration on the role that circumstances play in shaping one ''s response to the Gospel since it was observed that the theologies being inherited from the older churches of the North Atlantic community did not fit well into these quite different cultural circumstances.

Three broad varieties of local theology analyzed (translation, adaptation and contextual approaches) not only suggest a relation between a cultural context and theology, but also about the relation between theology and the community in which it takes place. Local theology is defined as a dynamic dialectical interaction among gospel, church and culture.

The second chapter concentrates on how the interaction of gospel, church and culture takes place. The author uses a map to chart the relationships in local theologies. This serves two purposes, orientation and evaluation.

In the third chapter, the author echoes that no culture is ever so simple that a comprehensive explanation and description can be given, nor is it ever so static that all is entirely cohesive and consistent. Once the issue of theological reflection has been located within culture, one is ready to begin the Gospel dialogue with the larger church tradition. From the point of view of local theologies, there are two dimensions to this dialogue. The first is determining the proper mode of discourse. The kind of theological result that will make the most sense for dealing with the situation at hand is discussed in chapter four where different forms of theology and their relationship to local circumstances are explored. This chapter discusses the Christian tradition so as to make the encounter between local theology and the Christian tradition easier. The second dimension has to do with the quality of the theological result. The fifth chapter discusses eleven questions which highlight in different ways some of the problems both local theology and Christian tradition face in their mutual encounter and growth. The general purpose of the chapter is to build a framework wherein a local church can better come to terms with the tradition.

In the penultimate chapter, it is forcefully argued that local theologies are in many ways the expressions of popular religions. One must therefore listen to popular religion in order to find out what is moving in people ''s lives. The writer opines that it is only then that local theologies can be developed and the liberating powers of the Gospel come to its full flower. It is also noted that the popular religion that develops in a culture (provided that it is not wholly imported) reflects a kind of local theology.

The ultimate section (chapter 7) discusses two other kinds of manifestations of religious belief and activity (syncretism and dual religious systems), their effect on the development of local theologies. The meaning of these issues for Christian practice is presented and some practical considerations for approaching them are suggested.


Schreiter is correct in his assertion that "the Christian tradition is too precious a heritage to be squandered carelessly or treated lightly. But without its continued incarnation in local communities, it becomes like that treasure buried in the ground, producing no profit" (103) . Indubitably, the book is an excellent and very practical tool that clearly teaches how one could understand culture so that the gospel message takes root. This is the most important reflection for the researcher during the period when he taught a course History of Christianity in West Africa at West Africa Theological Seminary, Lagos, Nigeria. An assessment of Christianity from the Portuguese explorations in the fifteenth century to the middle of the seventh century reveals that there was a relative failure on the part of the missionaries in the presentation of the gospel. Although issues like malaria, implications of imperialism and mass baptisms, rivalries, language difficulty and finance, to name a few, could be listed, the issue of an understanding of the culture of West Africa can not be underestimated. The Roman Catholics demanded monogamy from their converts but they did not show how the unwanted wives could be resettled. If fact, they separated themselves from the people when they condemned such customs and practices like polygamy, human sacrifices, image and shrines, the latter which they ordered to be destroyed before the conversion rather than later. The writer ''s impressive use of illustrations, bibliographical notes and index is worth mentioning since they meaningfully add to the quality of this invaluable text.


Such an invaluable publication must be read by all Christians since each will have an opportunity to present the gospel to someone from a different culture.

(C) Oliver Harding 2008


Source by Oliver Harding

The History and Importance of Firefighter Turnout Gear


As one of the most dangerous professions in the present day, firefighters everywhere must rely on their protective clothing and years of experience in times of peril, pressure and life-threatening danger. To ensure their safety, PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) is an absolute necessity, typically comprising of a helmet, pants, coat, gloves, breathing apparatus and a PASS (Personal Alert Safety System) device. PPE is popularly referred to as either "Turnout Gear", "Bunker Gear", or "Fire Kit" (in the UK). Specialized outer protective clothing was originally worn for warmth and dryness instead of protection against the flames.

Firefighters did not have the same quality of protective clothing in the past, and the majority of fires were fought from the exterior of burning buildings if possible. Early in the history of firefighting, structures on fire were hardly ever entered into, until the emergence of rubber boots and long trench coats. Racing into risk-filled, flame-fuelled buildings, firefighters needed gear that would safely protect themselves, and these aforementioned trench coats were the early forerunners to PPE gear. SCBA (Self Contained Breathing Apparatus) items began to materialize after World War I, featuring a metered compressed breathing air system that sent air into an accompanying face mask. These were very expensive to produce, and highly cumbersome for firefighters to wear.

Numerous technological advancements improved the efficiency of turnout gear over the years. At first, firefighters wore turnout gear consisting of red shirts and thick wool pants, as well as rubber slickers over their uniforms. After World War II, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) drew up compulsory requirements for all firefighter uniforms to utilize triple layers. One layer was moisture-resistant, another was flame-resistant and the third had to provide thermal insulation. A blend of three-layer PPE gear, along with SCBA, PASS devices and modern communications equipment made it more practical for firefighters to enter burning buildings.

In the 1980s, fire-resistant materials such as Kevlar were used in the manufacture of the outer shell of PPE pants and coats. The first turnout boots were knee-high and made of leather, while current versions were smaller and made of vulcanized rubber with a Boron Steel toe cap. Fire proximity suits are specialized versions of PPE turnout gear that have an additional metallic heat-reflective coating, and are used in jobs involving intense heat, such as chemical fires and aircraft fires.

In an occupation where extreme variances in temperature and humidity are an everyday occurrence, many firefighters suffer from hot and cold feet, as well as getting continuously wet and dry. For those who are vulnerable to chilly temperatures and large amounts of cold water, wet boots must be dried as soon as possible. This helps decrease serious medical conditions, such as Pseudomonas Cellulitis and Athlete's Foot


Source by Des Mayne