Philippine Independence Day – Facts You Should Know About the Philippine Independence Day


It was yesterday when it brought to my attention about Philippine Independence Day. I was curious about where it started and who was behind this historical event. Here is what I found …

The most momentous achievement of Aguinaldo's Dictatorial Government was the proclamation of Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite, on June 12, 1898.

Apolinario Mabini's opposition

General Emilio Aguinaldo thought that it was necessary to declare the independence of the Philippines with a government in operation. Aguinaldo believed that doing this would inspire the people to fight more eagerly against the Spaniards and he also thought that it will lead the foreign countries to recognize the independence of the country. Apolinario Mabini, who was Aguinaldo's unofficial adviser at that time, objected. He based his opposition on the fact that it was more imperative to reorganize the government to convince the foreign powers of the competence and stability of the new government than to proclaim Philippine independence at such an early stage. Aguinaldo, on the other hand, stood his ground and won.

Presidential Proclamation No. 28

The United States recognized Philippines independence on July 4, 1946. But President Diosdado Macapagal, the Grandfather of the current president of the Philippines, signed the Presidential Proclamation No. 28, changing the official celebration to June 12, 1898. That was the day that Emilio Aguinaldo declared the Philippine's independence from Spain.

June 12, 1898: The Proclamation of Philippine Independence

Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo. The event saw the unfolding of the National Flag of the Philippines and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo (Lupang Hinirang), as the Nation's National Anthem. The Act of the Declaration of Independence was written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who also read it. The Philippine Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, one of them was an American army officer, LM Johnson, Colonel of Artillery, who witnessed the proclamation.

The Philippine flag was made in Hong Kong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herboza. The Philippine National Anthem was composed by Julian Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon Marching band. This year is the 111th Philippine Independence Day celebration. It is being celebrated with traditional flag raising ceremony and occasional programs with lots of Philippine flags that can be seen everywhere from home to schools, government and private establishments and also in public places and transportation.

Real Andrews is a Certified Personal Trainer & Gym Owner. An actor by profession who is very passionate about the health and wellness industry, He is very passionate about making a difference in the State of health in our Country. Please visit his blog for more related articles. Real is an expert at helping people achieve their dreams & Goals. You might recognize him as Lt. Taggert from the ABC Show General Hospital.


Source by Real Andrews

Mergers and Acquisition – A Case Study and Analysis of HP-Compaq Merger


Brief Description

The following is a brief description of the two companies:


It all began in the year 1938 when two electrical engineering graduates from Stanford University called Hewlett and Packard William David started their business in a garage in Palo Alto. In a year's time, the partnership Hewlett called-Packard was made and by the year 1947, HP was incorporated. The company has been prospering ever since as its profits grew from five and half million dollars in 1951 to about 3 billion dollars in 1981. The pace of growth knew no bounds as HP's net revenue went up to 42 billion dollars in 1997. Starting with manufacturing audio oscillators, the company made its first computer in the year 1966 and it was by 1972 that it introduced the concept of personal computing by a calculator first which was further advanced into a personal computer in the year 1980. The company is also known for the laser-printer which it introduced in the year 1985.


The company is better known as Compaq Computer Corporation. This was company that started itself as a personal computer company in the year 1982. It had the charm of being called the largest manufacturers of personal computing devices worldwide. The company was formed by two senior managers at Texas Instruments. The name of the company had come from- "Compatibility and Quality". The company introduced its first computer in the year 1983 after at a price of 2995 dollars. In spite of being portable, the problem with the computer was that it seemed to be a suitcase. Nevertheless, there were huge commercial benefits from the computer as it sold more than 53,000 units in the first year with a revenue generation of 111 million dollars.

Reasons for the Merger

A very simple question that arises here is that, if HP was progressing at such a tremendous pace, what was the reason that the company had to merge with Compaq? Carly Fiorina, who became the CEO of HP in the year 1999, had a key role to play in the merger that took place in 2001. She was the first woman to have taken over as CEO of such a big company and the first outsider too . She worked very efficiently as she travelled more than 250,000 miles in the first year as a CEO. Her basic aim was to modernize the culture of operation of HP. She laid great emphasis on the profitable sides of the business. This shows that she was very extravagant in her approach as a CEO. In spite of the growth in the market value of HP's share from 54.43 to 74.48 dollars, the company was still inefficient. This was because it could not meet the targets due to a failure of both company and industry. HP was forced to cut down on jobs and also be eluded from the privilege of having Price Water House Cooper's to take care of its audit. So, even the job of Fiorina was under threat. This meant that improvement in the internal strategies of the company was not going to be sufficient for the company's success. Ultimately, the company had to certainly plan out something different. So, it was decided that the company would be acquiring Compaq in a stock transaction whose net worth was 25 billion dollars. Initially, this merger was not planned. It started with a telephonic conversation between CEO HP, Fiorina and Chairman and CEO Compaq, Capellas. The idea behind the conversation was to discuss on a licensing agreement but it continued as a discussion on competitive strategy and finally a merger. It took two months for further studies and by September, 2001, the boards of the two companies approved of the merger. In spite of the decision coming from the CEO of HP, the merger was strongly opposed in the company. The two CEOs believed that the only way to fight the growing competition in terms of prices was to have a merger. But the investors and the other stakeholders thought that the company would never be able to have the loyalty of the Compaq customers, if products are sold with an HP logo on it. Other than this, there were questions on the synchronization of the organization's members with each other. This was because of the change in the organization culture as well. Even though these were supposed to serious problems with respect to the merger, the CEO of HP, Fiorina justified the same with the fact that the merger would remove one serious competitor in the over-supplied PC market of those days. She said that the market share of the company is bound to increase with the merger and also the working unit would double. (Hoopes, 2001)

Advantages of the Merger

Even though it seemed to be advantageous to very few people in the beginning, it was the strong determination of Fiorina that she was able to stand by her decision. Wall Street and all her investors had gone against the company lampooning her ideas with the saying that she has made 1 + 1 = 1.5 by her extravagant ways of expansion. Fiorina had put it this way that after the company's merger, not only would it have a larger share in the market but also the units of production would double. This would mean that the company would grow tremendously in volume. Her dream of competing with the giants in the field, IBM would also come true. She was of the view that much of the redundancy in the two companies would decrease as the internal costs on promotion, marketing and shipping would come down with the merger. This would produce the slightest harm to the collection of revenue. She used the ideas of competitive positioning to justify her plans of the merger. She said that the merger is based on the ideologies of consolidation and not on diversification. She could also defend allegations against the change in the HP was. She was of the view that the HP has always encouraged changes as it is about innovating and taking bold steps. She said that the company requires being consistent with creativity, improvement and modification. This merger had the capability of providing exactly the same. (Mergers and Acquisitions, 2010)

Advantages to the Shareholders

The following are the ways in which the company can be advantageous to its shareholders:

Unique Opportunity: The position of the enterprise is bound to better with the merger. The reason for the same was that now the value creation would be fresh, leadership qualities would improve, capabilities would improve and so would the sales and also the company's strategic differentiation would be better than the existing competitors. Other than this, one can also access the capabilities of Compaq directly hence reducing the cost structure in becoming the largest in the industry. Finally, one could also see an opportunity in reinvesting.

Stronger Company: The profitability is bound to increase in the enterprise, access and services sectors in high degrees. The company can also see a better opportunity in its research and development. The financial conditions of the company with respect to its EBIT and net cash are also on the incremental side.

Compelling Economics: The expected accumulation in IIP gains would be 13% in the first financial year. The company could also conduct a better segmentation of the market to forecast its revenues generation. This would go to as much as 2 and a half billion dollars of annual synergy.

Ability to Execute: As there would be integration in the planning procedures of the company, the chances of value creation would also be huge. Along with that the experience of leading a diversified employee structure would also be there. (HP to buy Compaq, 2001)
Opposition to the Merger

In fact, it was only CEO Fiorina who was in favor of going with the merger. This is a practical application of Agency problem that arises because of change in financial strategies of the company owners and the management. Fiorina was certain to lose her job if the merger did not take effect. The reason was that HP was not able to meet the demand targets under her leadership. But the owners were against the merger due to the following beliefs of the owners:

The new portfolio would be less preferable: The position of the company as a larger supplier of PCs would certainly increase the amount of risk and involve a lot of investment as well. Another important reason in this context is that HP's prime interest in Imaging and Printing would not exist anymore as a result diluting the interest of the stockholders. In fact the company owners also feel that there would be a lower margin and ROI (return on investment).

Strategic Problems would remain Unsolved: The market position in high-end servers and services would still remain in spite of the merger. The price of the PCS would not come down to be affordable by all. The requisite change in material for imaging and printing also would not exist. This merger would have no effect on the low end servers as Dell would be there in the lead and high-end servers either where IBM and Sun would have the lead. The company would also be eluded from the advantages of outsourcing because of the surplus labor it would have. So, the quality is not guaranteed to improve. Finally, the merger would not IBM equal under any condition as thought by Fiorina.

Huge Integrated Risks: There have been no examples of success with such huge mergers. Generally when the market does not support such mergers, do not do well as is the case here. When HP could not manage its organization properly, integration would only add on to the difficulties. It would be even more difficult under the conditions because of the existing competitions between HP and Compaq. Being prone to such risky conditions, the company would also have to vary its costs causing greater trouble for the owner. The biggest factor of all is that to integrate the culture existing in the two companies would be a very difficult job.

Financial Impact: This is mostly because the market reactions are negative. On the other hand, the position of Compaq was totally different from HP. As the company would have a greater contribution to the revenue and HP being diluted at the same time, the problems are bound to develop. This would mean that drawing money from the equity market would also be difficult for HP. In fact this might not seem to be a very profitable merger for Compaq as well in the future.

The basic problem that the owners of the company had with this merger was that it would hamper the core values ​​of HP. They felt that it is better to preserve wealth rather than to risk it with extravagant risk taking. This high risk profile of Fiorina was a little unacceptable for the owners of the company in light of its prospects.

So, as far as this merger between HP and Compaq is concerned, on side there was this strong determination of the CEO, Fiorina and on the other side was the strong opposition from the company owners. This opposition continued from the market including all the investors of the company. So, this practical Agency problem was very famous considering the fact that it contained two of the most powerful hardware companies in the world. There were a number of options like Change Management, Economic wise Management, and Organizational Management which could be considered to analyze the issue. But this case study can be solved best by a strategy wise analysis. (HP-Compaq merger faces stiff opposition from shareholders stock prices fall again, 2001)

Strategic Analysis of the Case

Positive Aspects

A CEO will always consider such a merger to be an occasion to take a competitive advantage over its rivals IBM like as in this case and also be of some interest to the shareholders as well. The following are the strategies that are related to this merger between HP and Compaq:

* Having an eye over shareholders' value: If one sees this merger from the eyes of Fiorina, it would be certain that the shareholders have a lot to gain from it. The reason for the same is the increment in the control of the market. So, even of the conditions were not suitable from the financial perspective, this truth would certainly make a lot of profits for the company in the future.

* Development of Markets: Two organizations get involved in mergers as they want to expand their market both on the domestic and the international level. Integration with a domestic company does not need much effort but when a company merges internationally as in this case, a challenging task is on head. A thorough situation scanning is significant before putting your feet in International arena. Here, the competitor for HP was Compaq to a large degree, so this merger certainly required a lot of thinking. Organizations merge with the international companies in order to set up their brands first and let people know about what they are capable of and also what they eye in the future. This is the reason that after this merger the products of Compaq would also have the logo of HP. Once the market is well-known, then HP would not have to suffer the branding created by Compaq. They would be able to draw all the customers of Compaq as well.

* Propagated Efficiencies: Any company by acquiring another or by merging makes an attempt to add to its efficiencies by increasing the operations and also having control over it to the maximum extent. We can see that HP would now have an increased set of employees. The only factor is that they would have to be controlled properly as they are of different organizational cultures. (Benefits of Mergers :, 2010)

* Allowances to use more resources: An improvised organization of monetary resources, intellectual capital and raw materials offers a competitive advantage to the companies. When such companies merge, many of the intellects come together and work towards a common mission to excel with financial profits to the company. Here, one can not deny the fact that even the top brains of Compaq would be taking part in forming the strategies of the company in the future.

* Management of risks: If we particularly take an example of this case, HP and Compaq entering into this merger can decrease the risk level they would have diversified business opportunities. The options for making choice of the supply chain also increase. Now even though HP is a pioneer in inkjet orienting, it would not have to use the Product based Facility layout which is more expensive. It can manage the risk of taking process based facility layout and make things cheaper. Manufacturing and Processing can now be done in various nations according to the cost viability as the major issue.

* Listing potential: Even though Wall Street and all the investors of the company are against the merger, when IPOs are offered, a development will definitely be there because of the flourishing earnings and turnover value which HP would be making with this merger.

* Necessary political regulations: When organizations take a leap into other nations, they need to consider the different regulations in that country which administer the policies of the place. As HP is already a pioneer in all the countries that Compaq used to do its business, this would not be of much difficulty for the company. The company would only need to make certain minor regulations with the political parties of some countries where Compaq was flourishing more than HP.

* Better Opportunities: When companies merge with another company, later they can put up for sale as per as the needs of the company. This could also be done partially. If HP feels that it would not need much of warehouse space it can sell the same at increased profits. It depends on whether the company would now be regarded asa make to stock or a make to order company.

* Extra products, services, and facilities: Services get copyrights which enhances the level of trade. Additional Warehouse services and distribution channels offer business values. Here HP can use all such values ​​integrated with Compaq so as to increase its prospects. (Berry, 2010)

Negative Aspects

There are a number of mergers and acquisitions that fail before they actually start to function. In the critical phase of implementation itself, the companies come to know that it would not be beneficial if they continue as a merger. This can occur in this merger between HP and Compaq due to the following reasons.

Conversations are not implemented: Because of unlike cultures, ambitions and risk profiles; many of the deals are cancelled. As per as the reactions of the owners of HP, this seems to be extremely likely. So, motivation amongst the employees is an extremely important consideration in this case. This requires an extra effort by the CEO, Fiorina. This could also help her maintain her position in the company.

Legal Contemplations: Anti-competitive deals are often limited by the rules presiding over the competition rules in a country. This leads to out of order functioning of one company and they try to separate from each other. A lot of unnecessary marketing failures get attached to these conditions. If this happens in this case, then all that money which went in publicizing the venture would go to be a waste. Moreover, even more would be required to re-promote as a single entity. Even the packaging where the entire inventory from Compaq had the logo of HP would have to be re-done, thus hampering the finance even further. (Broc Romanek, 2002)

Compatibility problems: Every company runs on different platforms and ideas. Compatibility problems often occur because of synchronization issues. In IT companies such as HP and Compaq, many problems can take place because both the companies have worked on different strategies in the past. Now, it might not seem necessary for the HP management to make changes as per as those from Compaq. Thus such problems have become of greatest concern these days.

Fiscal catastrophes: Both the companies after signing an agreement hope to have some return on the money they have put in to make this merger happen and also desire profitability and turnovers. If due to any reason, they are not able to attain that position, then they develop a abhorrence sense towards each other and also start charging each other for the failure.

Human Resource Differences: Problems as a result of cultural dissimilarities, hospitality and hostility issues, and also other behavior related issues can take apart the origin of the merger.

Lack of Determination: When organizations involve, they have plans in their minds, they have a vision set; but because of a variety of problems as mentioned above, development of the combined company to accomplish its mission is delayed. Merged companies set the goal and when the goal is not accomplished due to some faults of any of the two; then both of them develop a certain degree of hatred for each other. Also clashes can occur because of bias reactions. (William, 2008)

Risk management failure: Companies that are involved in mergers and acquisitions, become over confident that they are going to make a profit out of this decision. This can be seen as with Fiorina. In fact she can fight the whole world for that. When their self-confidence turns out into over-confidence then they fail. Adequate risk management methods should be adopted which would take care of the effects if the decision takes a downturn. These risk policies should rule fiscal, productions, marketing, manufacturing, and inventory and HR risks associated with the merger.

Strategic Sharing


Hp and Compaq would now have common channels as far as their buying is concerned. So, the benefits in this concern is that even for those materials which were initially of high cost for HP would now be available at a cheaper price. The end users are also likely to increase. Now, the company can re frame its competitive strategy where the greatest concern can be given to all time IBM rivals. The advantages of this merger in the field of marketing can be seen in the case of shared branding, sales and service. Even the distribution procedure is likely to be enhanced with Compaq playing its part. Now, the company can look forward to cross selling, subsidization and also a reduced cost.

The foremost advantage in this area is that in the location of raw material. Even the processing style would be same making the products and services synchronized with the ideas and also in making a decent operational strategy. As the philosophical and mechanical control would also be in common, the operational strategy would now be to become the top most in the market. In this respect, the two companies would now have co-production, design and also location of staff. So, the operational strategy of HP would now be to use the process based facility layout and function with the mentioned shared values.

The technical strategy of the company can also be designed in common now. There is a disadvantage from the perspective of the differentiation that HP had in the field of inkjet printers but the advantages are also plentiful. With a common product and process technology, the technological strategy of the merged company would promote highly economical functioning. This can be done through a common research and development and designing team.

The buying strategy of the company would also follow a common mechanism. Here, the raw materials, machinery, and power would be common hence decreasing the cost once again. This can be done through a centralized mechanism with a lead purchaser keeping common policies in mind. Now Hp would have to think with a similar attitude for both inkjet printers as well as personal computers. This is because the parameters for manufacturing would also run on equal grounds.

This is the most important part of the strategies that would be made after the merger. The companies would have common shareholders for providing the requisite infrastructure. The capital source, management style, and legislation would also be in common. So, the infrastructure strategies would have to take these things into account. This can be done by having a common accounting system. HP does have an option to have a separate accounting system for the products that it manufactures but that would only arouse an internal competition. So, the infrastructural benefits can be made through a common accounting, legal and human resource system. This would ensure that the investment relations of the company would improve. None of the Compaq investors would hesitate in making an investment if HP follows a common strategy.

HP would now have to ensure another fact that with this merger they would be able to prove competitors to the present target and those of competitors like IBM as well. Even the operations and the output market needs to be above what exists at present. The company needs to ensure that the corporate strategy that it uses is efficient enough to help such a future. The degree of diversification needs to be managed thoroughly as well. This is because; the products from the two companies have performed exceptionally well in the past. So, the most optimum degree of diversification is required under the context so that the company is able to meet the demands of the customers. This has been challenged by the owners of HP but needs to be carried by the CEO Fiorina. (Bhattacharya, 2010)


Source by Rohit Agrawal

The Uses of Adhesives


Adhesives are compounds which adhere two different items together. Initially, adhesives were derived from the gums and resins of different plants, but now there are synthetic sources of adhesives which are extremely strong and are gradually making a firm foothold in the construction chemical industry. There is a wide range of their usage, from micro to macro level in our everyday lives. From the packaging of small sachets of shampoo to fixing a full length mirror to its frame, adhesive is used all around us. From mechanical to chemical, and even in cottage industries, you can not rule out the constant contribution of adhesives. They are popular due to their ease of use, versatility and flexibility.

Adhesives have a long list of uses. They are so inextricably linked to our lives that we become oblivious of their presence. But if we look around, we will find some kind of adhesive used in every sphere of our daily lives, be it furniture, gadgets or toys. Their varied use in food packaging to building construction has forced the manufacturers to research and make different kinds to suit different needs. Some are toxic and strong, they serve industrial purpose. Some are mild and free of any kinds of toxics. They are used in making toys for children, infant products or edibles packaging. Some are water resistant and non toxic. For example, adhesives are used in the packaging of ice creams. Liquid can reduce the adherence quality. So you need a strong yet non toxic adhesive which does not come apart when it comes into contact with water or any other kind of liquid.

Traditionally, there were various methods used for fastening, gluing and bonding. They were soldering, welding, brazing and other thermal and mechanical procedures which needed equipment, but now, adhesives are more widely used. They neither need tools and devices nor electricity or batteries to run them. The common uses of adhesives can be divided into two broad categories:

Industrial and Commercial Use

Under this heading comes adhesive usage in all kinds of industries, small or heavy. In small industries like those of food products, toys or stationary items, adhesives play an integral role in processing to packaging. Even the cling wrap around your phone card or the lipstick connected to its base has adhesives playing their roles. In heavy industries, adhesives play a central role, right from assembling spare parts of any machine, car paint or branding them with labels. In the construction industry too, for uniform distribution of stress, woods are bonded with strong adhesives. Apart from that, for painting and furnishing or home décor, adhesives are very essential.

Household Use

Right from sticking envelopes to rejoining broken toys, we use adhesives very frequently. In form of glue sticks, cellotapes or gums, we use adhesives everyday to mend shoes, to glue postage stamps, repair something or attaching tags to gifts.

There are manifold advantages of using adhesives over other adhering processes. Adhesives work faster than other bonding methods. Though surface preparation takes time as well as material cost, yet it is more effective than the traditional process. Unlike thermal or mechanical fastening methods, adhesives offer flexibility of material selection. They are not restricted to joining metals only. It joins larger as well as smaller areas with equal perfection which is an impossible task for other traditional methods. If a related industry can utilise the maximum potential of this flexibility profits would be soaring.

Using adhesives instead of traditional binding ensures a reduced cost of production. It neither needs equipments for drilling, welding, soldering or other fastening agents, nor manual force to operate them. Welding is a rigid method which brings physical changes in the materials adhered. If you need to undo the process after using adhesive, there are agents available to serve your purpose. Using them, the fastening or adherence can be undone without distorting the item retaining their original look. Due to this flexibility, undoing becomes easier. It saves production time and it does not take very long. This not only saves time, but also reduces production costs in the long run. Items needed to fasten are not disfigured or discoloured. So now you can skip the secondary procedure of rectification of these distortions.

In traditional bonding, often you need to drill the item to insert fasteners like nuts or bolts. This weakens the internal structure. Adhesives do not need any foreign props for assembling. At macro level, it saves material cost while at micro level it saves the hassle of a prolonged procedure.

There is a variety of adhesives available at different price ranges. These can be used for different kinds of material surfaces. Unlike welding, they can be used on hardwoods, softwoods, papers and so on. This versatility of adhesives makes it more popular in different industries. They offer effective tensile strength to the surface and substrate bonding. They even join porous materials. Moreover the joints are invisible which ensures a finished product with the least possible blemish.

These adhesives are equally helpful and effective in joining two different kinds of materials with different melting points. In other words, they can join two dissimilar materials too. For industrial use, this is a very important characteristic which makes manufacturers preferring adhesives over traditional fastening procedures.

One of the greatest advantages of adhesive use is that it distributes the stress load uniformly. It does not let the stress be concentrated in one place. Locally accumulated stress further increases the possibility of rupture. Apart from that, since mating surfaces are always in contact, it protects the items against many environmental odds. The continuous bonding makes this possible.

Another remarkable feature of adhesives is it does not affect the weight of the item noticeably. Usually brazing and soldering, along with physical changes, bring change in weight as well. But with adhesive this change is almost negligible. This versatility of adhesives is known to everyone and the same is reflected in its varied usage all around.


Source by Sam D Goddard

Importance of Duality Concept in OR and Economic Importance of the Duality Concept


This is MBA assignment question for MB0032 of SMU. The question is – "Why Duality concept is important in OR? Describe the economic importance of the Duality concept."

The importance of duality concept is due to two main reasons:

a) If the primal contains a large number of constraints and a smaller number of variables, the labour of computation can be considerably reduced by converting it into the dual problem and then solving it.
b) The interpretation of the dual variable from the loss or economic point of view proves extremely useful in making future decisions in the activities being programmed.

Economic interpretation of duality:

The linear programming problem can be thought of as a resource allocation model in which the objective is to maximize revenue or profit subject to limited resources. Looking at the problem from this point of view, the associated dual problem offers interesting economic interpretations of the LP resource allocation model.

We consider here a representation of the general primal and dual problems in which the primal takes the role of a resource allocation model.

From the above resource allocation model, the primal problem has n economic activities and m resources. The coefficient cj in the primal represents the profit per unit of activity j. Resource i, whose maximum availability is bj, is consumed at the rate aij units per unit of activity j.

Economic interpretation of dual variables:

For any pair of feasible primal and dual solutions, (Objective value in the maximization problem) ≤ (Objective value in the minimization problem)

At the optimum, the relationship holds as a strict important.

This relationship implies that as long as the total return from all the activities is less than the worth of the resources, the corresponding primal and dual solutions are not optimal. Optimally is reached only when the resources have been exploited completely, which can happen only when the input equals the output (profit).

Economically the system is said to remain unstable (non optimal) when the input (worth of the resources) exceeds the output (return). Stability occurs only when the two quantities are equal. This is the most important aspect of economic importance of dual variables for MBA assignments.


Source by Gian Brett

How to Tell a Fake Carousel Horse, and Laws On Antiques


New Movement in the Antique Industry

Its about time … Antique Show Manager, Dordy Fontinel of the Fall Hunt County Antiques Fair, (in Virginia) is rebelling against the influx of reproductions into the Antique Shows. All her shows now will be Antiques only ….. and has asked her dealers to stand behind whatever they sell by issuing a receipt (with their name and address, and phone), describe and date the items, and inform the buyer of any repairs. Many of us in the Carousel business, that is all of the reputable dealers will gladly do that for you. We hope all dealers will follow her lead.

Our long conversation was very informative. Dorty proceeded to tell me that of those people buying on E-Bay, about 75% of all antique purchases are fakes. Now that is not E-Bay's fault, what has happened to our society that has made it the norm to try and deceive, trick, our buyers with the intent of outright fraud. We need to turn this trend around …. and educate the public.

Did you know in many states, (it needs to be in all states), it IS Criminal Fraud to sell a fake or reproduction as an antique. The merchandise should be labeled as such. You can contact your State's Attorney's office, or your State Senator office to find out. This is for any Antique.

Do you know What classifies and Antique … items must be over 100 years old, wood items, as furniture 50 years or older. Anything less is considered a collectible.

The Hobby Protection Act was passed in 1973, requires all new merchandise to be marked with country of origin and date … but most are not following even that. It is obvious these thousands of items, which have infiltrated event to the highest caliber Antique shows is meant to deceive.

Dorty is trying to band all dealers together, get television and publication articles, and get the FTC to not only recognize this problem, but do something about it. How will you feel years from now only to find out that the Depression Glass, or Tiffany Glass you have saved for years to retire with is bogus.

Genuine Antiques, Dorty has stated are the ultimate recycled items for the Green movement. So Go Green, buy an Authentic Antique!

How to tell a Fake Carousel Horse from a real one …

This column is to help you not get taken by being naive and uninformed. Your best approach to purchasing and Antique Carousel Horse is to be prepared. We always suggest you try to deal with an experienced, reputable Carousel Dealer. Many others will give you all kinds of stories (and we have heard some gems), just remember the 1st rule …. if it sounds too good to be true …. it probably is not!

Please also remember there is nothing wrong with a Reproduction or decorator piece, so long as you are made aware that is what you are purchasing. The difference between these is usually quite a bit, unless you are really lucky.

1. If you do find a wood horse and want it to be identified or make sure of what you are purchasing, most Carousel people would be glad to help you … you should expect to pay for this service, this is what these people do for a living …… it is usually under $ 50. and would be well worth it to you to be sure. (We $ charge 25. and require photos of both sides of the animal, top, bottom, and any details on it. and $ 50. for a full history and details).

2. You should learn as much as you can, there are many fine Carousel books out there, we have several in stock too, and check your local library.

3. The Boats are in … several boat loads of reproduction carousel horses, and lately I have been seeing a small Cow, and a Frog, are appearing again in the market place. We reiterate, there is nothing wrong with these IF they are sold to you as Current carvings or Replaquias or Reproductions. These are decorative sculptures, not of investment quality nor have any provanance (history, lineage). These were NEVER on Carousels, but produced for the American market. Oh another new antique out is the copy of the French Bicycle (Veloipede) Horse). He has a Bicycle chain under his neck.

4. Most Antique Carousel Horse are Hollow, with the head, neck, legs, tail all carved separately, and PERMANENTLY ATTACHED. The ears and tails were never left detachable …..

5. Carving on the two sides of a Carousel Horse are not the same, since you did not see the inside of the horse from the viewing areas, the companies did not spend the money to have the horses detailed on both sides (except some English and European Horses). Jewels were usually on the outside only, but there are always a few exceptions.

6. Carousel manes were on the outside of the horse, just like a live one, not on both sides, not the same on both sides, does not look like they were carved with a little rake.

7. Authentic carvings are smooth and well finished, no chissle marks or rough areas.

8. The hole and pole go all the way through the horse and match up (except Track machine horses, they have no top pole).

9. Latest scam, is to strip the horse and leave it out in the weather to crack and age.

10. Coca Cola did NOT make any carousel horses, these are all illegal Mexican reproductions on illegally copied Coca Cola bases. They were never on carousels, and never associated with Coca Cola.


Source by Marsha A. Schloesser

What Does Neon Do For Your Life?


Can it save your life? It could give you a warning about a life-threating situation to avoid, Yes, it had done that for many persons because it makes a bigger visual impact on you than a painted sign does. Most of the population does not give that use much thought. Your first thought would probably be that neon does not benefit you personally. Your contact with neon, like that of most people, is neon signs that seem to be almost everywhere. If you're like most people, neon signs may be the only use of neon that comes to your mind. You're walking past a store and you see an "OPEN" sign in that tells you that it is open and ready for business. That's the neon usage you and millions of others know and understand. Almost everyone takes neon signs for granted-a part if life, and we all know what their purpose is. Their aim is to induce a quick decision from the prospective buyer.

Whether they flash, use animation, display a brand-name logo, or perform a popular service by letting you know that the store sells lottery tickets they serve a useful function. They are a convenience that people have come to depend upon. The save time and money for busy shoppers and provide income for businessmen. However, in highly-competitive areas such as shopping districts, and areas that abound with businesses they are undoubtedly a way of making income and surviving. That's why use of the sign the neon sign as an adverting method rapidly gained worldwide popularity. They produced beneficial results in any language. Just think, without neon signs the world would be a much darker place and businesses would be a lot less profitable. However, the chances of anything like that ever happening are just about nil.

What makes neon perform so well that it can handle advertising chores so efficiently and so profitably? What allows it to undertake all those little-known tasks that it handles so well? The main reason is that neon is s first-rate conductor of electricity. Moreover, it has the amazing ability to give of a light that can be seen at great distances. Neon is frequently used in airplane beacons, a use that is probably unknown to most people. In fact, some pilots have reported seeing neon beacons 29 miles away when it was impossible ti see other kinds of lights. Neon signs are even visible through the fog. Its use as airplane beacons benefits millions of air travelers.

Neon does not come cheap. Pure neon costs $ 33. per 100 grams. Something so expensive has to be worth this huge price. Other uses were found for neon. It is used in vacuum tubes, television tubes, high-voltage indicators, lighting arrestors (whose function it is to protect electrical equipment from damages by
lightning or some other electrical source by diverting the electricity to the ground). and water meter tubes. Now here we begin to see that neon serves much higher purposes than just helping businessmen to make sales. Through these another uses its benefits are made available to millions all over the world. But neon is not through yet. Liquefied neon is used as a cryogenic refrigerant in certain cases, when the use of the more expensive liquid helium is to be avoided.When used with an Ion Engine ionized neon can serve as a propellant in space. A little-known possibility for the use of neon is as a chemical weapon, but this may not be likely because it is highly toxic.

But wait, let's not forget what is a more widely-known use of neon, the gas laser. This is made by combining neon with helium. Gas lasers are used in the medical profession in eye surgery to remove cataracts. Indeed, even if lasers can not save lives they can save your eyesight and that's no small accomplishment.

Over the years neon has come into its own through a growing usage of neon lighting in various forms to enhance and brighten home decor. Neon wall clocks can be found in many of today's homes, Neon clocks came into existence in the 1930's. They were the creation of the Electric Neon Clock based in Cleveland, Ohio. These clocks were originally called Aztec neon wall clocks and were widely used in bars, shops, and offices. They were produced in many different types and colors and were extremely popular.

Neon has amassed quite a list of accomplishments for itself. That's not bad for an element that is rare on Earth, but on the other hand is the fifth most plentiful gas in the universe. The public at large really does not have any idea about whether they can do without neon because most people are not aware of all of neon's contributions to all of our lives. Think about living without some of the benefits of neon that have been discussed and see what your thoughts may be about that issue. Oh! by the way, no neon, no TV.


Source by Joseph Tedesco

Who Is the Most Decorated American War Hero?


Much like the combat which the men and women endured during wartime, there are many controversies surrounding America's most decorated war veteran. There is the debate over whether to consider a pure 'medal count', which would include medals received for being wounded, acts of service, etc. or only considering those receiving medals for acts of courage under fire. When I started this hub, I only considered the medal count.

When it comes to courage under fire, it is hard to measure which soldier, sailor or marine has the greatest bravery. Many brave men and women have died bravely which we have never even heard of. Their Creator knows who they are and what they did. I have included many of the persons that I have been educated about during the process of maintaining this hub.

The most decorated veteran status has been attributed to Audie Murphy of Texas. Audie Murphy was considered America's most decorated veteran with 33 medals earned in 27 months of combat. His earning of so many decorations in such a short time is amazing. Some career soldiers have many well deserved honors over an extended period of time. For a soldier to earn so many decorations so quickly was astonishing.

Besides the medals bestowed on him by the United States, he received five from France and one from Belgium. Since many of his medals were awarded while serving during World War II, he gained great notoriety. Fellow soldier, and World War II veteran, David Hackworth stayed in the service and gained more awards.

David Hackworth of California is now considered America 's most decorated soldier with 90 decorations, citations and awards. He is proudest of his Combat Infantryman Badge. He received the Distinguished Service Cross (with oak leaf cluster), the Silver Star (with 1 Silver Oak Leaf Cluster and 4 Oak Leaf Clusters), the Legion of Merit (with 4 Oak Leaf Clusters), the Bronze Star (with V device and one silver Oak Leaf Cluster and one Oak Leaf Cluster), the Purple Hear (with one silver Oak Leaf Cluster and one Oak Leaf Cluster), the Air Medal, Army Commendation Medal, Good Conduct Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Army of Occupation Medal, Korean Service Medal, Vietnam Service. He is the most decorated Vietnam veteran.

After World War II, Audie Murphy went on to star in 44 movies and establish himself as a country western music composer. At that time there was great controversy over who best embodied the hero spirit, Audie Murphy, who was a true hero or John Wayne who was a film hero. The controversy continued as groups debated who was a better role model for the youth of America.

There was also a controversy concerning the debate over who was the most decorated veteran, Audie Murphy or Matt L. Urban. When posing the question who was the most decorated, one must consider whether they were decorated by the United States or other nations.

New York born Matt L. Urban has been touted as having as many decorations as Audie Murphy in World War II. He was an officer, earning 7 Purple Hearts, the Legion of Merit, the Croix de Guerre with a Silver Star and the Congressional Medal of Honor. He personally led his men in amazing feats, from landing in North Africa, to personally knocking out communications towers while under fire. The Congressional Medal of Honor was awarded to him by President Jimmy Carter, 35 years after the war.

The most decorated veteran of the Vietnam War was Joe Hooper of Moses Lake, Washington. Hooper was awarded 35 medals, including the Congressional Medal of Honor, two Silver Stars, six Bronze Stars and eight Purple Hearts. His tally exceeds that of Murphy, York, Keene or Urban. Hooper's life after the war was filled with conflict and controversy which contributes to his being overlooked by many historians. Like the war itself which stirred up strong emotions and controversy, the most decorated veteran of that war was filled with controversies as well. One of the more controversial episodes was when he told a group of high school students,

"I would tell my children, if I were to do this over, 'Go to Canada, do not fight.' Do not fight a war you can not win. "

His tragic life ended when he died of a brain hemorrhage at 40 years old. He was later interred at Arlington National Cemetery.

Such controversies over who was the most decorated also existed in the first World War.

For World War I, Alvin York of Tennessee has long been identified as the most decorated American soldier in that conflict, although some historians claim that George Lawson Keene of Texas was the most decorated.

Alvin York received the Distinguished Service Cross, which was later upgraded to the Medal of Honor. He also received the Croix de Guerre and the Legion of honor from the French government .. The nations of Italy and Montenegro bestowed their Croce di Guerra and War medals on him as well.

George Lawson Keene of Texas received the he received was the Medal of Honor and Silver Star with Oak Leaf Cluster. He was also wounded seven times during his service, leading to his being awarded the purple heart he also received the Distinguished Service Cross, the Cross of Honor, the French Croix de Guerre with Palm, Knights of Verdun, and the French Commemorative medal. The French decorations were personally awarded to him by Marshal Ferdinand Foch.

The honor for the most decorated woman veteran goes to Colonel Ruby Bradley. She spent time as a Japanese POW and later served in Korea. She was awarded the following medals and awards Legion of Merit medals, the Bronze Star, two Presidential Emblems, the Meritorious Unit Emblem, The American Defense Service Medal, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal , the Army Occupational Medal with Japan clasp, three Korea Service medals, the Philippine Liberation Medal, the Philippine Independence Ribbon and the United Nations Service Medal.

Robert L. Howard of Alabama has the distinction of being the only soldier nominated for three Congressional Medal of Honor Awards within a thirteen month period. This was a unique accomplishment which considered his courage under fire. It was also worthy to note that the understrength company her served in was the most highly decorated unit for its size, with its members having five Congressional Medals of Honor.

The Oklahoma born James Gritz (aka James ' Bo "Gritz) was raised by his grandparents, since he father had been killed in combat. Throughout his life, he excelled in many areas. When he enlisted in the army, he advanced through the ranks . When his military career was over, he had earned 62 medals for his courage. After leaving the military he continued serving as a minister and adviser. his outspoken support for oppressed Americans and the preservation of life, earned him the ire of government officials when he discovered their involvement in the drug trade out of the golden triangle area of ​​Burma. It was his involvement that helped resolve the situations at Ruby Ridge with Randy Weaver and the Montana Freemen. he also directly participated in efforts at locating missing POW's in Vietnam in the years after the war and protested in the Terry Schaivo case.

Most Decorated Navy and Marine Heroes and Others

After initially posting the hub, I was made aware of many highly decorated heroes worth mentioning. There are other heroes that have valiantly served their nation which I was unable to include due to space issues. When it comes to military decorations, they are classified by the service and the conflict. I have been made aware of many American heroes, which include the following:

The most decorated Marine title goes to Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller (1898-1971) of Virginia .. During his 37 years of service, he became the only marine to earn five Navy crosses. There have also been books written about his life. Chesty Puller also had a long history of military activities and being a tough guy. He fought guerrillas in Haiti and Nicaragua. The guerrillas in Nicaragua eventually called him the "Tiger of the Mountains" and placed a 5,000 peso reward on his head.

He also served in World War II and Korea. It was in Korea, that he accomplished the unprecedented feat of earning a fifth Navy Cross, which has never been repeated by anyone else. Some Pulley followers claim that he would have had even more medals, bu the refused to play political games with the higher ups.

Puller knew about dealing with guerrilla warfare and how ugly war could get. His grandmother had been killed by Yankee soldiers and her home burned after they found her dead husband's spurs hanging on the wall. The soldiers considered the spurs 'military supplies' and thereby contraband, so they deemed her worthy of being murdered. Such atrocities shaped his thinking and toughness is difficult situations. To this day, the Marines at Parris Island end the evening by saying "Good Night Chesty Puller, wherever you are!"

Colonel Robert Howard, USA, (1939-2009) who has recently passed away is another contender for the most decorated. Colonel Howard was an Army Special Forces soldier who displayed amazing feats of heroism in Vietnam. In addition to being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, he also received the Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star, Bronze Star (2), eight purple hearts and a many other awards.

World War I veteran, Paul Jarrett was awarded with the French Legion of Honor Award when he was 101 years old for his accomplishments in the war. A street in France was also named in his honor.The French did not forget the deeds done for their nation. His grandson did a documentary entitled "The Return of Paul Jarrett" which documents his life and service in the 166th brigade of the 42nd Infantry Division ..

Another highly decorated hero is pilot, William J. Maddox, who died in 2001. During his time in the service he received the Distinguished Service Medal, four Silver Stars, 127 Air Medals, eight Distinguished Flying Crosses and five Legions of Merit.

Lieutenant Colonel Anthony "Tony" Herbert has been called the most decorated soldier of the Vietnam War. He also has the distinction of being the most decorated soldier of the Korean War. Herbert wrote an autobiography (Soldier) of his time in the service. His career was controversial in that he reported on atrocities committed by American soldiers in Vietnam, which led to some concerns in the media and military circles.

James Williams USN was the most decorated man in naval history .. James accomplished his notable achievements over his 20 years of faithful service in the United States Navy.

Do People Ever Lie About Decorations?

Sadly, many people have lied about valor and the decorations they were awarded from the military. The extent of lying grew to be such a problem that a law was passed entitled the "Stolen Valor Act" that made it illegal to lie about decorations that have been awarded. A recent case in California involved Xavier Alvarez, a water board member in Pamona, California. Alvarez bragged that he had served in the Marine Corps and was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. When an investigation revealed that he had not served and had not been awarded that decoration, the case went to court. The Ninth Circuit Court claimed that his lying did not hurt anyone, and was a form of protected speech in this matter. The court went further and declared the prohibitions in the act as 'unconstitutional' and that Alvarez committed no crime.


Source by Jeffrey Murrah

A Short History Of Architectural Drawings


For hundreds of years architectural drawings were drawn up and reproduced by hand with ink on paper. These scale drawings were drawn according to standard conventions and used as building plans, working sketches, and as records. During the twentieth century technical advances changed the way draftsmen performed their job. The introduction of digital technology has caused a switch to computer aided drafting, or CAD.

The origins of the detailed plans of structures common to modern times was in the Renaissance, when artists made detailed sketches of classical buildings and began planning buildings that they imagined. In those days, the renderings did not include measurements and the conventions for detailed plans had not yet been set. Builders were expected to follow the illustration and work out the details.

As building became more complex, the art of drafting the plans advanced so that everything was spelled out in detail. Working up the plans including all the levels of detail became the process for spelling out engineering and construction problems before beginning the actual building. Creating detailed plans helps to avoid construction delays, to make cost estimates and to help the builder decide to commit to a project.

Eventually, the conventions used in modern architecture were adopted by the architects who prepared the plans. Certain views became standard, such as floor plans, which are horizontal views of the floor of a building usually at a height of three feet, showing how all the objects are arranged. This includes the walls, locations of windows and doors, fittings, stairs, and sometimes furniture in solid lines.

Another view is an elevation, which might be the depiction of an exterior or interior wall of a building. A cross section, similar to a floor plan, is a vertical plane section which cuts through a building. All these are drawn as orthogonal views, which means they are depicted with opposite sides parallel, in other words, the sides do not converge as in a perspective view. These are combined to create comprehensive plans for the building, used at stages to solve engineering problems or construction guides.

Copies of plans at first needed to be laboriously redrawn by hand, which was done on special paper such as vellum that could not shrink or stretch. When the blueprint process was developed, making accurate copies was simplified. Another advance was the switch to tracing paper, which allowed for much easier copies to be made of building plans.

Better tools such as adjustable squares and technical pens cut down on the time and labor needed to produce renderings. Technical drafting aides like the parallel motion drafting table and transfer lettering also helped to reduce the labor in producing drawings.

By far the biggest advance for creating architectural drawings came with the application of computer technology to this discipline. CAD software programs have taken over the production of building plans and have increased both the capabilities and speed of completion for planning structures. The choices for rendering details and materials and solving engineering challenges have been simplified. Digital plotters have made reproducing accurate prints an easy matter


Source by Adriana N.

Geoffrey Chaucer As a Father of English Poetry


Geoffrey Chaucer as a Father of English Poetry


Geoffrey Chaucer is called the father of English poetry. He symbolizes the Middle Ages, as no other writer does. He stands in much the same relation to the life of his time as Alexander Pope does to the 18th century and Tennyson to the Victorian era. Chaucer's place in English literature is more important than both of them. He is the first great English writer. His work is divided into three different phases;

In his first phase, he was under the influence of the French (1357-72).

The second phase was under the influence of Italian (1372-86).

The third phase of his life was that he focused on the native originality and produced his own literature in English (1386-1400).

Literature was not published or not in people's approach before him. There was the government of Normans in Britain, which came there from France, therefore, French was the official language and Latin was the language of religious people and of church because their Holy book 'Bible' was in Latin. Chaucer was the first person to introduce modern English language in Britain.

At that time, there were four dialects of English used in Britain.

· Northern

· Southern

· Midland

· Kentish

In London, there was midland dialect. Chaucer picked out this midland and made his standard in this dialect. He used embellished and ornamented words in his poetry that people liked a lot. And the next generation used this type of words in their writings and people used to speak these modern words in their daily language that Chaucer introduced in his writings. The Canterbury Tales is a landmark in Chaucer's life and he is well-known for it.

Chaucer is also a pioneer of English novel. In his Troilus and Criseyde and The Canterbury Tales, we can find the seeds of novel. He was called first novelist, even before the appearance of novel in Britain and he was also called the first dramatist even before the appearance of drama in Britain. That's why he is also called the Father of English literature. But he is well-known for his poetry.

Characteristics of Chaucer's Poetry:

Chaucer had a very busy career as a man of affairs, poetry for him was necessarily a part-time activity. Chaucer made several contributions to English poetry. He tried to enlarge the range, scope and mentality of the poets, introduced very close observations of the life around him, presented the crystal clear picture of the conditions of his times through his writings, excelled in characterization and above all gave a new shape to english language and poetry. With these contributions, he remains at the top of the history of English literature, and no one can challenge his position.There are several features of his poetry.

· The First great National Poet

Chaucer was the first great national poet. He expressed the new hopes and aspiration of the people of his time. The foundation of Chaucer's art lies in English life and character.

· Realism

Realism attempts to describe life without idealization. Chaucer was the first realist in English literature. He rejected the themes of traditional concept of fantasy and ideality. Before him, the war, heroes and the royal family were the main topics for the poets, but Chaucer broke this chain and focused on reality. Everything in his Canterbury Tales was from life. He was a good observer; he saw the appearance, dress and behavior of pilgrims very deeply. He painted as it is what he observed.

· Narrative Skill

Chaucer is highly appreciated for his narrative skill. His power as a narrator, the power to tell an interesting story is simply astounding. He is the first great English story-teller in verse form. His employment of verse as the vehicle of storytelling is the most memorable contribution and the modern English literature is greatly thankful to him in this respect. His Canterbury Tales is actually a collection of excellently narrated stories.

· Humor

He is regarded as the first great English humorist. No English literary work before him expressed humor in the modern sense. That was serious and based on heroic deeds. Chaucer's humor is always sympathetic, natural and spontaneous.

· Art of Characterization

In English literature Chaucer is the first great painter of characters. He presents his character in a masterly manner. He presents his characters both individually and in the forms of types.

William Blake views that the characters of Chaucer's pilgrims are the character which compose all ages and nations. The Knight, the Friar, the Wife of Bath, the Doctor of Physic, the Prioress, the Monk, the Merchant and many others are living and eternally fresh and their features symbolize the qualities of universal human life. Such characterization gave the guideline to the upcoming writers.

· Iambic Pentameter and Rhyme-Royal

The credit of the use of rhyme-royal for the first time in English literature goes to Chaucer. Rhyme-royal is also called the Chaucerian stanza; the stanza of seven lines with rhyming scheme of ABABBCC. He borrowed this technique from France. King James I of Scotland in 15th century used this stanza in his famous poem "King Quair".

When five stress syllables are used in a verse of poetry, then it is called pentameter. Iambic pentameter means 'rhythm of five patterns of syllables'.

eg "Grave nods at grove, each alley has a brother."

· Humanistic Outlook

Poetry portrays not merely the art and artificiality of age, rather it hints at humanistic outlook as well. This reflection of humanity in poetry starts with Chaucerian literature. His descriptions of his fellowmen express his wide humanity and prepare the way for Shakespeare. He has no hate for the fools and no distaste for rascals. He is the poet of humanity.

Chaucer also introduced the rhyming couplet in the end of every stanza.

To wind up the above discussion, we may say that he stands alone and no one climbs equally with him. It can be said that Chaucer, with his remarkable, impressive and comprehensive literary works, has remained till now not to be exceeded. English language and literature became mature because of Chaucer's production. So, he is called "father of English Poetry".


Source by Kamran Mehboob

Differences Between Abacus Math And Vedic Math


Today two different ancient methods are available for school students to conquer math. With either of this technique students are able to do large and complex calculations in their head without need of any modern day electronic devices. These techniques are: 1) Abacus Math and 2) Vedic Math. Before we indulge straight into the differences let us first know what these two methods are.

The abacus is an ancient tool invented during Greek and Roman times. Over the period abacus has evolved into different types as it traveled across the world. However it was in China the abacus was innovated further and used heavily in day-to-day life for calculations. Abacus math is a technique derived from this very old technique and fits right into the modern day world. Abacus use can build confidence, provide a sense of achievement, promote intuitive thinking, enhance problem-solving capability, stimulate creativity and improve concentration and mental endurance.

Vedic Mathematics has no legal definition. Hindu philosophy is based on Veda-s (ancient scriptures written in Sanskrit, some say as old as 5000 BC) and mathematics translated from these texts is termed as Vedic Mathematics. These ancient scriptures were rediscovered by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960) and he translated the complex text into simpler understandable mathematics.

The system is based on 16 Vedic sutras or aphorisms, which are actually word-formulae describing natural ways of solving a whole range of mathematical problems. Some examples of sutras are "By one more than the one before", "All from 9 & the last from 10", and "Vertically & Crosswise". These 16 one-line formulae originally written in Sanskrit, which can be easily memorized, enables one to solve long mathematical problems quickly. These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution.

With Abacus math, abacus is used as a tool to learn calculations. Beads are moved up and down and various columns to represent the number. When children use both hands to move the abacus beads to perform arithmetic calculations, there is quick communication between the hands and the brain that stimulates both the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This promotes rapid, balanced whole brain development. Abacus math should be started at very early childhood, as young as age 4. Abacus math starts at very basic level by teaching the numbers and then progressing to calculations. Eventually the child retains the memory of bead positions and the relevant notation. Abacus math if started during later ages can create a bit of hindrance.

Vedic math is entirely done in mind. Vedic math also starts at a basic level of numbers and gradually progressing to simple additions, subtractions, multiplications and division. Vedic math goes much more beyond just the basic calculations. With Vedic math one can also solve complex geometrical theorems and algebraic problems. Vedic math can be started at later ages as well without any difficulty.

The key in both techniques is to practice and implement the methods in your day-to-day life. And what could be a better way to practice then using the math worksheets. Today there are various websites you can refer to gain knowledge of either method.


Source by Dhaval Shrimankar